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domingo, 3 de abril de 2011

Sensores CCD (Charge-coupled device)


Sensor CCD

Un CCD (siglas en inglés de charge-coupled device: ‘dispositivo de carga acoplada’) es un circuito integrado que contiene un número determinado de condensadores enlazados o acoplados. Bajo el control de un circuito interno, cada condensador puede transferir su carga eléctrica a uno o a varios de los condensadores que estén a su lado en el circuito impreso. La alternativa digital a los CCD son los dispositivos CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) utilizados en algunas cámaras digitales y en numerosas Webcam. En la actualidad los CCD son mucho más populares en aplicaciones profesionales y en cámaras digitales.
Los primeros dispositivos CCD fueron inventados por Willard Boyle y George Smith el 17 de octubre de 1969 en los Laboratorios Bell, ambos premiados con el Premio Nobel de Física de 2009 precisamente por este invento.
Popularmente el término CCD es familiar como uno de los elementos principales de las cámaras fotográficas y de video digitales. En éstas, el CCD es el sensor con diminutas células fotoeléctricas que registran la imagen. Desde allí la imagen es procesada por la cámara y registrada en la tarjeta de memoria.
La capacidad de resolución o detalle de la imagen depende del número de células fotoeléctricas del CCD. Este número se expresa enpíxeles. A mayor número de píxeles, mayor resolución. Actualmente las cámaras fotográficas digitales incorporan CCDs con capacidades de hasta ciento sesenta millones de píxeles (160 megapíxeles) en cámaras Carl Zeiss.
Los píxeles del CCD registran gradaciones de los tres colores básicos: rojoverde azul(abreviado "RGB", del inglés Red, Green, Blue), por lo cual tres píxeles, uno para cada color, forman un conjunto de células fotoeléctricas capaz de captar cualquier color en la imagen. Para conseguir esta separación de colores la mayoría de cámaras CCD utilizan una máscara de Bayer que proporciona una trama para cada conjunto de cuatro píxeles de forma que un pixel registra luz roja, otro luz azul y dos píxeles se reservan para la luz verde (el ojo humano es más sensible a la luz verde que a los colores rojo o azul). El resultado final incluye información sobre la luminosidad en cada píxel pero con una resolución en color menor que la resolución de iluminación. Se puede conseguir una mejor separación de colores utilizando dispositivos con tres CCD acoplados y un dispositivo de separación de luz como un prisma dicroico que separa la luz incidente en sus componentes rojo, verde y azul. Estos sistemas son mucho más caros que los basados en máscaras de color sobre un único CCD. Algunas cámaras profesionales de alta gama utilizan un filtro de color rotante para registrar imágenes de alta resolución de color y luminosidad pero son productos caros y tan solo pueden fotografiar objetos estáticos.
Los detectores CCD, al igual que las células fotovoltaicas, se basan en el efecto fotoeléctrico, la conversión espontánea en algunos materiales de luz recibida en corriente eléctrica. La sensibilidad del detector CCD depende de la eficiencia cuántica del chip, la cantidad de fotones que deben incidir sobre cada detector para producir una corriente eléctrica. El número de electrones producido es proporcional a la cantidad de luz recibida (a diferencia de la fotografía convencional sobre negativo fotoquímico). Al final de la exposición los electrones producidos son transferidos de cada detector individual (fotosite) por una variación cíclica de un potencial eléctrico aplicada sobre bandas de semiconductores horizontales y aisladas entre sí por una capa de SiO2. De este modo el CCD se lee línea a línea aunque existen numerosos diseños diferentes de detectores.
En todos los CCD el ruido electrónico aumenta fuertemente con la temperatura y suele doblarse cada 6 u 8 °C. En aplicaciones astronómicas de la fotografía CCD es necesario refrigerar los detectores para poder utilizarlos durante largos tiempos de exposición.

47 comentarios:

Ingeniería Sergio Arboleda dijo...

a mi parecer el mas usado en camaras de video antes de la llegada del HD, gracias a su nitidez y calidad en la imagen de esa epoca.
entre las camaras mas populares con sensores CCD se encuentra la sony DCRvx-1000, que poseia un sensor de 3CCD, muy popular hoy en dia

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